According to Messari, the majority of 4,653 active Ethereum Nodes are currently in the control of centralized web providers such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), who could expose Ethereum to central points for failure.
A Monday post showed that 69% of the hosted nodes on Ethereum Mainnet are provided by three major cloud providers. Over 50% comes from Amazon Web Services (AWS), 15% from Hetzner, and 4.1% from OVH.
Ethernodes also shows that Google (3.5%), Alibaba (3.9%), and Oracle (4.1%) offer web hosting services on Ethereum.
Distribution of Ethereum nodes by web service providers Source: Ethernodes
Messari raised concern in a December 2020 Report that while cloud service providers are becoming more distributed among the lowest third of providers, it may lead to Ethereum being vulnerable due to the high-cost nature node infrastructure.
“High infrastructure costs make it more likely for nodes to run infrastructure with cloud computing providers (i.e. AWS), exposing Ethereum to central points of failure.”
Solana has similar distribution problems with nodes. Hetzner takes up 42% of the hosted nodes on Solana’s network, followed closely by OVH (26%), and AWS (3%)
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Ethernode data shows that nearly 60% of distributed Ethereum nodes worldwide are located in the United States (46.4%) and Germany (13.4%). This means that government intervention from either one of these countries could have a significant impact on Ethereum’s decentralization at node level.